Wooden houses with wood frame structure

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The building of houses has developed over time in different forms, depending on human needs for space and comfort, and the technology has also changed depending on socio-economic conditions and the availability of materials and labour.

The oldest known building material was wood, always handy and easy to process with relatively simple means. Archaeological excavations have shown that this material was the most commonly used in house builds, and also in fortification and reinforcement builds. For centuries, wood construction technology was brought to a rank of perfection and refinement that makes it to be worldwide sought for its superiority over other technologies.

The most eloquent example of application of this technology is found in Canada and the U.S.A., where 90% of individual and multi-family houses (duplex, triplex, apartments) up to 3 floors are built of wood, which in combination with other materials, ensures a rank of economic efficiency (cost of construction and exploitation) and comfort that is unrivalled. Socio-economic characteristics of North American society, and rapidly growing population mobility, have enforced the need for fast and cheap housing construction.

The opening of new economic centres for example, led to the appearance overnight of new neighbourhoods and towns for the people in search of the newly created opportunities. Over the past 200 years, North American technology led to a process of refining the method of construction and use of materials, which have reached a level of true art, North American houses being sought for in all corners of the world, from the Middle and Farr East to Europe of East and West, from Australia up to and beyond the Arctic Circle.

The most important characteristic for wood houses is the speed of execution; a house of 200-300 m can be finished in 10 to 12 weeks, compared to the traditional brick houses that have an execution period of more than 10 times longer. Another major advantage is the elastic resistance of the wooden structure, which offers security in case of earthquakes from 8 to 8.5 degree on the Richter scale, as demonstrated by the Canadian houses built in the city of Kobe in Japan and at the hurricanes of 250-300 km / h, as seen in many parts of the United States, haunted by these calamities.

The fact that the wood sandwich wall of mineral wool insulation offers a much superior thermal resistance than the masonry, allowing the use of much thinner walls, thus increasing the usable area by up to 10% (on a 200 sqm house, for example, you can gain up to a room of 20sqm, without affecting the constructed area). This is very important; especially in the towns where lands are small and do not allow the extension imposed a large footprint of the building.

Finally, the quality of high thermal resistance reduces the exploitation costs (heating, cooling) by 50% comparing with the masonry construction, which has a much higher thermal inertia. A wooden house can be maintained unheated from several hours to several days and then, if necessary, can be reheat in minutes.

Romanian real estate market is perfectly suited to this technology, being conditioned by two important factors: lack of quality living space and of low consumer financial strength, accentuated by the difficulty of obtaining mortgages. For these reasons, the opportunity to build a house with 3-4 bedrooms, 2-3 bathrooms, garage, at the price of an average apartment, without the inherent disadvantages of living in a flat, has the potential to revolutionize the quality of life of most families in Romania.

Housing base

It is a basic element of the building, with its help the location of the walls is established and the walls are anchored in the foundation of the building.

The foundation is a special one, made by a new technology in Romania, consisting of polystyrene moulds.

45x90, 45x135mm, having the same width with the wall which rests on it, sits on a layer of waterproofing and is fixed in the first phase with the special fixing, and after installation of the ground floor walls it is reinforced with them by anchor bolts or concrete steel clips that exist in the foundation.

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The walls

The walls are the main elements of strength and stability of the structure, which provide the overtaking of vertical loads from the floor and the roof structure and also the horizontal seismic loads and wind loads and transmit this loads to the foundation.

An important advantage of the framing system is the possibility of making walls in form of prefabricated panels. This improve the quality of execution of these elements, by making them in factories with modern machinery and technology and an adequate technical control and at the same time by prefabrication, the execution time of the construction on the site will be significantly reduced, and also the labour necessary for the assembly, thus decreasing the cost of the building.

The walls are made of resinous wood planks with dimensions of section of 50x80mm and 45x135mm, spaced in plan at distances of 400 ... 600 mm. Usually the exterior walls are made with a thickness of 125mm and the interiors with a thickness of 90 to 135mm, these values are imposed mainly by the thermal insulating layer thickness which is bigger on the exterior.

The resistance vertical elements of the walls (installed) are secured by the horizontal feet of the panels with nails and galvanized metallic corner. The exterior wall panels are usually plated with OSB of 18mm, which assure the strengthening and the cooperating of lateral standard pillars, thus making the wall in its plan to act as a rigid washer.

The closing exterior walls can be prefabricated or built in and are made up of the following layers (from outside to inside): acrylic coating Baumit type applied by roller; primer, fibreglass mesh, mortar, plywood of fireproof OSB of 18 mm, resinous wood beams structure of 50 x 80mm fireproof treated, mineral wool 80mm filling, anti condensation foil, plaster board 12.5mm, acrylic emulsion paint Baumit type, PVC trim profiles with double glazing window from float glass 6-12-4 with swinging opening (optional tilt-swinging) - REHAU profiles.

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Floors

The floors are horizontal construction elements which overtake the load of the weight of people and furniture and send it at the walls and at the same time, ensure the cooperation between the walls in horizontal plan and the distribution of horizontal loads from wind and seismic loads.

The main resistance elements of the floors are the beams. The beams are made ??of resinous wood planks, with sections of 50x135, 50x180, arranged in interspaces of 400 ... 600 mm and stiffened with spacing pieces made by planks with the same cross section. This system made with beams and transversal spacing pieces together with the floor make up a resistant and rigid ensemble, acting as a rigid washer.

For rooms with large openings main laminated beams are also used with sections of 135x230, 180x230, 135x280mm, made up of glued wood planks or glued boards.

The anchorage of the capping beams is made with nails, bolts, corners and galvanized steel straps.

Over the beams the supporting layer is placed which can be made of: plank floor smoothed of 22 and 45mm thick, counter floor of 24 and 45mm, OSB boards of 22mm thick, laminated parquet.

On the lower base of the beams the finishing layer can be placed directly: plaster board panels, wainscot, etc.. or it may remain apparent and be varnished.

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Roof framing

It is the closing element placed at the top of the construction, having an important practical role that is to protect the building from bad weather, and also having an aesthetic role, contributing greatly to the appearance of the building. In fact many wooden buildings are individualized by the shape of the roof structure.

The roof framing consists of the resistance structure, the roof covering substrate and the roof covering.

The resistance structure of the roof can be made in two ways namely: truss roof and braced framework roof. In both cases the support of the roof covering is made of 24mm thick of roof boarding or OSB boards of 12 mm.

Over the base layer of the roof covering the waterproofing bitumen membrane is placed.

The cover material that may be used: roof tiles, metal sheet roofing, corrugated metal roofing sheet, bitumen shingle.

The inclined attic ceilings, made by the roof structure are thermally insulated with mineral wool mattresses, with thicknesses of 100, 150mm.

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